Thank you for posting here.
According to your description, I understand that:
You get the event 454, 17 that indicate the issue in CA database.
If I have misunderstood the problem, please don't hesitate to let me know.
From my search, I found out that every time we try to start the certificate
service on the server it looks for the following entry in the registry to
see if a restore of the Certificate database is required:
If present then it looks for the path to the valid log files to perform a
restore. I believe that this key existed on your SBS server but it may not
point to a valid path for the log files and hence it was failing with an
error message saying that the timestamp doesn't match in the log.
To correct the issue, you may try to remove the trigger which indicates the
Jet database that a recovery is required.
If the issue persists after you remove the trigger, it may indicates that
the Jet database is corrupted and it must be restored. As the log t match
the time stamp, you may have to reinstall the Certificate service and
follow KB 889250 to remove all related objects from the corrupted CA.
How to decommission a Windows enterprise certification authority and how to
remove all related objects from Windows Server 2003 and from Windows 2000
Hope it helps. If you have any questions or concerns, please do not
hesitate to let me know.
Microsoft Online Partner Support
Microsoft Global Technical Support Center
Get Secure! - www.microsoft.com/security
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