n Sun, 09 Nov 2003 13:11:20 +0000, Chris Sanderson wrote:
(Note that I run Slackware, so I'm giving this advice based on a Slackware
system. You might need to make 1 or 2 tiny adjustments, but the basic
principles are the same)
Hopefully this will help. I don't use Redhat and I'm not sure how your
system starts up, but from what you've said, I'm assuming that when you're
asked for your username and password, it's in a graphical environment i.e.
XWindows is already running (you have gdm/kdm or something of the sort
installed). As a result, when you log out, you get back to a graphical
login screen, and not a DOS-type console login screen.
Shutting down X in this case, especially if you're new to Linux, can be a
little complicated since it involves starting up in a different runlevel.
So first try the following:
When you're in X, press Ctrl+Alt+F1
This will get you to a console. X is still running, but now you're in
console mode. To get back to X, it's usually Alt+F7. Use the left Ctrl and
Alt keys. Other consoles are on F2, F3, F4, F5 and F6 usually. To switch
to a console from X, it's Ctrl+Alt+F<number>. To switch to a different
console while already in console mode, it's just Alt+F<number>.
Switch to a console and run your VM program, whatever that is. If that
works, good, and you don't *need* to read the rest of this message, but you
probably should for some background information.
If it still complains about X running, you have 2 options. The quick
solution is to switch to root and type "init 3" at the command prompt.
This lets you switch runlevels on the fly. When you're done with runlevel
3, type "init 4" to get back to your graphical system. Read on for a more
Option 2 is more permanent. You'll have to edit the
/etc/inittab file to tell Linux not to start up in graphical mode, but to
start up in console mode. For a full explanation of init and the inittab
file, read the man pages. In short, when a Linux/Unix system boots up,
the first program it runs is "init". "init" then runs other commands,
which run other commands, which run other commands etc. until you have a
fully working system. To find out what commands to run, init uses the file
To complicate matters a little further, certain commands are run in
certain runlevels. Runlevel 1 is single user mode, with no networking support
or anything of the sort, and is typically used for debugging and fixing
system problems. It's the simplest mode and contains only the necessary
features to start up your system. In other words, when starting in
runlevel 1, only a very small set of necessary programs are run.
Runlevel 3 is console multi-user mode usually. This runlevel does
not start up a graphical interface by default, but it does start up
multiple text consoles, the network subsystem and general multi-user
features. If required, X windows can be manually started.
Runlevel 4 is probably what you're running in now. It usually starts up
several consoles, but rather than switch to a console login mode, it
switches to a graphical login mode by starting up a program like gdm or
kdm or something of the sort. That starts up X windows and gives you a
nice pretty login screen, and everytime you log out, you're automatically
taken back to the pretty screen. You never have to see the console
directly. This is the sort of runlevel that users like.
What you need