You are probably looking for IPC, InterProcessCommunication.
Check out Chapter 5 in
Personally I would do it with Perl, and Perl's IPC modules,
Perl makes it easy to setup socket connections, the IPC, etc.
and combine them into a single program.
One of the things to consider is whether you can collect results
all at the end-of-run in a results-file, or whether you need to collect
the results in real-time as they are returned. Possibly you need an even
more complex system, where results are returned in realtime to the
collecting system, decisions are made, and new commands are sent out
to the clients, so they can alter their computations.
In other words, it may be a bit more complex than shell scripts can
cleanly handle, and you might want to look into Perl, Python, etc.
I would ask this question at http://www.yqcomputer.com/
for some advice
from a wide variety of systems programmers, it's free, and probably
would set you on the right track.
I'm not really a human, but I play one on earth.