math symbols in unicode collection

math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Xah Le » Mon, 28 Jun 2010 17:21:41

ath Symbols in Unicode

plain text version follows. The html version is much better because
the symbols are enlarged with css. And with working links.

Math Symbols in Unicode

Xah Lee, 2010-06-26

This page collects math symbols in Unicode.

Some Greeks:

subscript: €
Basic binary operators:

element of:
binary relation of sets:
Intersection: €
Binary operator on sets: €
N-nary operator on sets:

Precede and succeed: €
less and greater:
less and greater 2:
with approx:
less and greater with equivalence:
less and greater with similarity:
less and greater slanted:
less and greater misc:
Order relation with dot: €
Equality, Identity, Equivalence, Approx, Congruence

Approx equality:
Misc equality:
Misc relations:

Logic: €
Logic binary:
Logic n-nary: €
n-nary operators: €

Ratio and proportion:
Parallel and perpendicular:
Right angle:
Angles: €

Spherical angle:

pairs 2:
Misc indicators:
Misc symbols:
Z notation:
Tilde Operators:
Misc Operators:
Misc products: €
Plus variations:
minus sign variations:
Unsorted: € €
What Chars Are Included

These are roughly llmath related symbols under the Basic
Multilingual Plane (BMP). The total number of chars on this page is
about 766.

For few hundred arrows, see: Arrows in Unicode. There are also a few
hundred drawing shapes, used together for example to tile into a large
braket or boxes, corner, for matrixes, etc. You can see them here:
unicode_shapes.txt. There are also few hundred dingbats in unicode,
some could be used for math, but are not considered math symbols here.

There are more math symbols but are outside of BMP, and i'm not aware
of any fonts that shows much of chars outside BMP. In particular,
there are several set of specially rendered alphabets, such as double
struck capital letters, Fraktur (aka gothic), bold slanted... They are
outside of BMP. You can see them here: unicode_math_alphanum.txt. You
can see also part of the operator set grouped by code point, here:

Note: this page will be improved over the coming months. e.g. The
bunch of less used misc symbols at the bottom can still use some

I See Blank Squares?

If some shows up as square, that's probably because you don't have the
right font, or your browser is old and isn't configured properly, or
your browser simply does not work well. Exact reason can be complex.
As of 2010-06-27, latest versions of the following browsers on Windows
Vista show all characters (assuming you have the right font first):
Google Chrome, Opera, Firefox.

To get proper fonts, see: Best Unicode Fonts.

To find out the unicode name and code point of the char, use emacs.
See: xub Unicode Browser mode for Emacs.

Unicode Names for Symbol's Meaning

The symbols

math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Henr » Wed, 30 Jun 2010 03:09:08

It is not a good idea to post such things to a news group,
as for most people many of the characters are unreadable here
and many of them still unreadable in html.

pdf has fewer problems, such as the symbols in


math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Xah Le » Wed, 30 Jun 2010 03:20:44

if you have the right fonts installed, then all the chars on that page
shows in latest versions of Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera.

they all show in emacs, of course.

you can find the best fonts for unicode here:

Best Fonts for Unicode

proper font is critical if you need to use these symbols anyway.

The problem of showing all unicode by a table as in the unicode
document is that, the math symbols are scattered all over the
different sections. Let's say you work in logic, and needed some
symbols commonly found in logic field. It's basically impossible to
find them in any convenient way using just about any unicode
references, including Mac's character palette or Windows's charmap.

what is better needed is a collection of the symbols by purpose.

for example, you needed to see all symbols provided in unicode related
to say the Union and intersection operators.

That is why i created the page.

The Mac's Character Palette somewhat also addressed this practical
need, by letting you view all math symbols in one pane of the
interface. But it is general for public users, not finely grouped for
professional use.


math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Norbert_Pa » Wed, 30 Jun 2010 15:35:46

It is not a good idea to read Xah Lee's posts, either.

math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Marc Mient » Wed, 30 Jun 2010 16:25:12

Am 28.06.2010 20:20, schrieb Xah Lee:

Not in my Emacs (23.2.1 on windows XP)

Sorry, but slowly I find your posts as spam. Many of your
proposals look strange for me. This starts with your indentation
and typography of Lisp codes and use of CamelCase, and ends
with your very strange criticism of fundamental values of Emacs.


math symbols in unicode collection

Post by Xah Le » Wed, 30 Jun 2010 19:04:21

you need to install the fonts first.

to the best of your intentions, you probably meant to say you find my
views unorthodox.

this has been discussed in comp.emacs and newsgroups
several times in the past about 4 years.

to repeat my point of view:

i don't care much about code-formatting style in the sense people
should sting others just because their code isn't formatted in a
particular way, or in a way comformant to whatever lose guides the
language's official documentation may advice. In fact, i consider the
habit of thinking about code formatting being a major time drain, and
inhibit progress in computer languages. You can ready many articles on
my site that discuss this, under the formatting section here:

i often use camelCase in my elisp code because i find it easier to
distinguish my own variables from emacs lisp's built-in ones. In
particular, due to the fact that the emacs-lisp-mode does not do
syntax color fully. See:

Emacs Lisp Mode Syntax Coloring Problem >
> and end>
> with your very strange criticism of fundamental values of Emacs.

Right. Thanks for your opinion. It is controversial. I'll nitpick your
phrasing a bit. My criticism really isn't about undamental values of emacs, but mostly about its interface. You might think that emacs's
interface being its fundamental value... but to me the fundamental
value of emacs goes far more than its interface, in fact i consider
its interface has little value today. Perhaps that's where we

Emacs Modernization

to discuss on emacs further, perhaps we can narrow the cross posting
to just comp.emacs.