ath Symbols in Unicode

http://xahlee.org/comp/unicode_math_operators.html

plain text version follows. The html version is much better because

the symbols are enlarged with css. And with working links.

---------------------------------------

Math Symbols in Unicode

Xah Lee, 2010-06-26

This page collects math symbols in Unicode.

Some Greeks:

superscript:

subscript: €

Roots:

Sets:

Constants:

Basic binary operators:

--------------------

Sets

element of:

misc:

binary relation of sets:

Union:

Intersection: €

Binary operator on sets: €

N-nary operator on sets:

Joins:

--------------------

Order

Precede and succeed: €

less and greater:

less and greater 2:

with approx:

less and greater with equivalence:

less and greater with similarity:

less and greater slanted:

less and greater misc:

Order relation with dot: €

--------------------

Equality, Identity, Equivalence, Approx, Congruence

equality:

Identity:

Equivalence:

Approx equality:

Misc equality:

Misc relations:

--------------------

Logic

Logic: €

Logic binary:

Logic n-nary: €

n-nary operators: €

--------------------

Geometry

Geometry:

Ratio and proportion:

Parallel and perpendicular:

Right angle:

Angles: €

Spherical angle:

--------------------

...

Pairs:

pairs 2:

integrals:

Derivative:

vector:

Misc indicators:

Misc symbols:

Tacks:

Turnstiles:

Z notation:

Tilde Operators:

Misc Operators:

Misc products: €

Plus variations:

Solidus:

minus sign variations:

maps:

Unsorted: € €

--------------------

What Chars Are Included

These are roughly llmath related symbols under the Basic

Multilingual Plane (BMP). The total number of chars on this page is

about 766.

For few hundred arrows, see: Arrows in Unicode. There are also a few

hundred drawing shapes, used together for example to tile into a large

braket or boxes, corner, for matrixes, etc. You can see them here:

unicode_shapes.txt. There are also few hundred dingbats in unicode,

some could be used for math, but are not considered math symbols here.

There are more math symbols but are outside of BMP, and i'm not aware

of any fonts that shows much of chars outside BMP. In particular,

there are several set of specially rendered alphabets, such as double

struck capital letters, Fraktur (aka gothic), bold slanted... They are

outside of BMP. You can see them here: unicode_math_alphanum.txt. You

can see also part of the operator set grouped by code point, here:

unicode_math_operators.txt

Note: this page will be improved over the coming months. e.g. The

bunch of less used misc symbols at the bottom can still use some

categorizing.

--------------------

I See Blank Squares?

If some shows up as square, that's probably because you don't have the

right font, or your browser is old and isn't configured properly, or

your browser simply does not work well. Exact reason can be complex.

As of 2010-06-27, latest versions of the following browsers on Windows

Vista show all characters (assuming you have the right font first):

Google Chrome, Opera, Firefox.

To get proper fonts, see: Best Unicode Fonts.

To find out the unicode name and code point of the char, use emacs.

See: xub Unicode Browser mode for Emacs.

--------------------

Unicode Names for Symbol's Meaning

The symbols

It is not a good idea to post such things to a news group,

as for most people many of the characters are unreadable here

and many of them still unreadable in html.

pdf has fewer problems, such as the symbols in

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

if you have the right fonts installed, then all the chars on that page

shows in latest versions of Google Chrome, Firefox, Opera.

they all show in emacs, of course.

you can find the best fonts for unicode here:

Best Fonts for Unicode

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

proper font is critical if you need to use these symbols anyway.

The problem of showing all unicode by a table as in the unicode

document is that, the math symbols are scattered all over the

different sections. Let's say you work in logic, and needed some

symbols commonly found in logic field. It's basically impossible to

find them in any convenient way using just about any unicode

references, including Mac's character palette or Windows's charmap.

what is better needed is a collection of the symbols by purpose.

for example, you needed to see all symbols provided in unicode related

to say the Union and intersection operators.

That is why i created the page.

The Mac's Character Palette somewhat also addressed this practical

need, by letting you view all math symbols in one pane of the

interface. But it is general for public users, not finely grouped for

professional use.

Xah

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

Am 28.06.2010 20:20, schrieb Xah Lee:

Not in my Emacs (23.2.1 on windows XP)

Sorry, but slowly I find your posts as spam. Many of your

proposals look strange for me. This starts with your indentation

and typography of Lisp codes and use of CamelCase, and ends

with your very strange criticism of fundamental values of Emacs.

regards

Marc

Not in my Emacs (23.2.1 on windows XP)

Sorry, but slowly I find your posts as spam. Many of your

proposals look strange for me. This starts with your indentation

and typography of Lisp codes and use of CamelCase, and ends

with your very strange criticism of fundamental values of Emacs.

regards

Marc

you need to install the fonts first.

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

to the best of your intentions, you probably meant to say you find my

views unorthodox.

this has been discussed in comp.emacs and gnu.emacs.help newsgroups

several times in the past about 4 years.

to repeat my point of view:

i don't care much about code-formatting style in the sense people

should sting others just because their code isn't formatted in a

particular way, or in a way comformant to whatever lose guides the

language's official documentation may advice. In fact, i consider the

habit of thinking about code formatting being a major time drain, and

inhibit progress in computer languages. You can ready many articles on

my site that discuss this, under the formatting section here:

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

i often use camelCase in my elisp code because i find it easier to

distinguish my own variables from emacs lisp's built-in ones. In

particular, due to the fact that the emacs-lisp-mode does not do

syntax color fully. See:

Emacs Lisp Mode Syntax Coloring Problem

http://www.yqcomputer.com/ >

> and end>

> with your very strange criticism of fundamental values of Emacs.

Right. Thanks for your opinion. It is controversial. I'll nitpick your

phrasing a bit. My criticism really isn't about undamental values of emacs, but mostly about its interface. You might think that emacs's

interface being its fundamental value... but to me the fundamental

value of emacs goes far more than its interface, in fact i consider

its interface has little value today. Perhaps that's where we

disagree.

Emacs Modernization

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

to discuss on emacs further, perhaps we can narrow the cross posting

to just comp.emacs.

Xah

http://www.yqcomputer.com/

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