chosen for retention, in other cases the verb. Even where a noun and
verb of kindred meaning were not etymologically connected, one or other
of them was frequently suppressed. There was, for example, no such word
as cut, its meaning being sufficiently covered by the noun-verb knife.
Adjectives were formed by adding the suffix -ful to the noun-verb, and
adverbs by adding -wise. Thus for example, speedful meant ?rapid? and
speedwise meant ?quickly?. Certain of our present-day adjectives, such
as good, strong, big, black, soft, were retained, but their total number
was very small. There was little need for them, since almost any
adjectival meaning could be arrived at by adding -ful to a noun-verb.
None of the now-existing adverbs was retained, except for a very few
already ending in -wise: the -wise termination was invariable. The word
well, for example, was replaced by goodwise.
In addition, any word -- this again applied in principle to every word in
the language -- could be negatived by adding the affix un-, or could be
strengthened by the affix plus-, or, for still greater emphasis,
doubleplus-. Thus, for example, uncold meant ?warm?, while pluscold and
doublepluscold meant, respectively, ?very cold? and ?superlatively
cold?. It was also possible, as in present-day English, to modify the
meaning of almost any word by prepositional affixes such as ante-,
post-, up-, down-, etc. By such methods it was f